Concrete masonry units provide strength, durability, fire resistance, energy efficiency and sound attenuation to a wall system. The first mortars were simply clay mud, then lime and sand. The basic ingredient of modern mortar is Portland cement, which is also the active component of concrete. In most cases, the shoes should also be below the depth of the frost, that is, at the depth at which the ground is expected to freeze in winter.
When the Earth freezes, the water it contains expands as it becomes ice, and that can generate enough force to lift or lift a building, cracking the rigid masonry material. Masonry consists of building structures from individual units that are placed and joined together with mortar. Brick, stone and concrete blocks are the most commonly used materials in masonry construction. Several different types of masonry units are commonly used.
Common types of masonry units include clay and concrete units, which can be solid or hollow, and glazed or unglazed. Other types of masonry units include cast stone and calcium silicate units.